0215U003042, R & D reports
Prevention and treatment of cardiopulmonary complications in cancer patients at radiation therapy with a liner accelerator.
Gaiseniuk L.O., Kulinich G.V.,
Grigor'ev Institut for Medical Radiology
Research object. 95 cancer patients receiving radiotherapy on a linear accelerator and 123 hospital records of patients who underwent radiotherapy at a linear accelerator or "Rocus-AM" 60Co device from 2004 to 2014. A group of positive control included 95 patients with cardiac pathology working in the sphere of ionizing radiation. Research objective. To increase the effectiveness of prevention and drug correction of cardiopulmonary complications occurring in cancer patients due to exposure at a linear accelerator. Research methods and equipment. Clinical, laboratory, instrumental; biochemical analyzer "Express plus", automatic hematological analyzer SF-3000 "Sysmex", coagulometric automatic analyzer-photometer ACL-7000, electrocardiograph FX-326U, hardware-software complex "Mediana", US device "Toshiba Xario". Theoretical and practical results. The results of clinical instrumental examination of 60 patients during radiotherapy and the data of retrospective chart review provided the evaluation of character and frequency of radiation complications resulting from exposure at linear accelerator and "Rocus-AM" 60Co device. The complications from radiotherapy were detected most frequently in patients with lung cancer and were epidermitis, esophagitis, pulmonitis, disorders of cardiac rhythm and conduction. When originally elaborated scheme of prevention was used, a decrease of risks of radiation complications was observed. Novelty. The state of cardiovascular and respiratory systems in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy at linear accelerator has been evaluated by complex of clinical instrumental and laboratory examinations. For the first time risk criteria and a scheme of early diagnosis of radiation-induced complications of cardiovascular and respiratory systems were elaborated. A new scheme of drug-based prevention of cardiopulmonary complications from radiotherapy in cancer patients after exposure at Clinac 600 linear accelerator was substantiated. A new method of treatment of radiation-induced pulmonitis in patients with lung cancer was elaborated. Implementation effectiveness. The scheme of drug prevention and the method of treatment of radiation complications in lungs allows to avoid undesirable gap in radiotherapy due to decrease of complications that results in reduction of bed-days. Area of application - radiology, oncology.